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DIAGNOSIS IN TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE
a) Yin and Yang
b) Exterior and Interior
c) Cold and Heat
d) Empty and Full
YIN AND YANG
Yin and Yang are familiar Chinese terms to Western ears, and it is a basic TCM philosopy.  All phenomena, natural and unnatural, are explained in terms of this universal philosophy, they are mutually dependent forces : one cannot exist without the other.  The harmony within the universe is maintained by the balance of this two opposing forces, Yin and Yang.  Everything in nature can be divided into Yin and Yang.  Everything is polarised and every cell in our body has a positive and negative aspect.  There are almost always opposites in everything - hot & cold, empty & full, light & dark, life & death.  When Yin & Yang this balance is disturbed and taken beyond a certain limit that disharmony occurs.
1) The typical unbalance Yang syndrome are-heat, fever without cold, constipation, dark-coloured urine, loud voice, thirsty, yellow tongue coating, red tongue body, and rapid pulse.
2) The typical Yin syndrome are - cold, no fever, feels cold, loose stools, clear urine, low voice, not thirsty, white tongue coating, pale tongue body, (small) thready pulse.
But the clinic manifestations are complex and are difficult to be generalised by only the Yin and Yang, so other six principles are needed for the pattern identification.
EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR
This is to determine the location for the invasion of the pathogens into the human body and to estimate the depth of the sickness.
1) Exterior Syndrome - The position of the disease is in the exterior, the disease is in its initial stage and mild eg. Cold, Heat, Nasal Discharge, Pulse Floating.
2) Interior Syndrome - Disease is in the interior. eg. Hot, Fever, Cough, Pulse Sunken.
3) Exterior to Interior - Getting worse. eg. Shortness of breath, Poor appetite, Loose stools, Abdominal pain and distension, Limb cold, Diarrhoea.
4) Semi-Exterior & Semi-Interior - The main manifestations are alternative appearance of cold and heat syndrome, fullness and oppression in the hypochondrium.
COLD AND HEAT
Refer to the nature of the disease, then to identify whether the pathogens are the Yin and Yang. The human body is in Yin and Yang deficiency.
1) Cold Syndrome - Caused by Yin pathogens or body Yang insufficiency.
2) Heat Syndrome - Caused by Yang pathogens or body Yin insufficiency.
DEFICIENCY AND EXCESS
Deficiency - Body qi insufficiency.  Insufficient blood.  Yang to Yin.
Excessive Syndrome - Indicate the pathogens are stronger.